Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
Title: The Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Human Seminal Parameters, Sperm Chromatin Structure and Condensation
Ahmed F. Farag currently working as Faculty of Medicine Department of Dermatology, Venereology & Andrology, , Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.
This work aimed at exploring the effect of cigarette smoking on semen parameters and sperm chromatin condensation comparing to non-smokers, also drawing comparisons among light, moderate, and heavy smokers, 95 infertile Egyptian patients living in Suez Canal region and Sinai were studied after taking an informed consent. The patients were divided into two groups; infertile non smokers (45) and infertile smokers (50). Smokers were divided into subgroups according to number of cigarettes smoked per day as mild (≤10), moderate (11-20) and heavy smokers (≥21). History, clinical examination, semen analysis and sperm chromatin integrity assay by aniline blue staining were carried out. The semen parameters were measured using computer assisted semen analysis technology and compared with the World Health Organization (WHO 2010) criteria.
Results: A highly statistically significant decrease in sperm count (p=0.006), sperm progressive motility (p=<0.001), percentage of normal forms (p=<0.001) and sperm viability (p=0.002) was found in smokers as compared to non smokers. The semen volume was slightly but not significantly decreased in smokers than non smokers (p=0.301). The percentage abnormal sperm chromatin condensation was highly significant (p=<0.001) in smokers as compared to non smokers. These parameters were worse in the heavy smokers.
Conclusion : Cigarette smoking is one of the environmental factors that can affect male fertility by decreasing the semen quality especially sperm count, motility, viability and percentage of normal sperm cells and affecting sperm chromatin condensation and consequently increasing the percentage of immature sperms. These abnormalities were also related to the amount of cigarettes smoked per day and duration of smoking.